Susan Bull

Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Birmingham
s.bull@bham.ac.uk
Engineering Smart Learning Systems

Research

  • LEA's Box: A Learning Analytics Toolbox (European Commission FP7)
  • Next-TELL: Next Generation Teaching, Education and Learning for Life (European Commission FP7)
  • EMOTE: Embodied Perceptive Tutors for Empathy-Based Learning (European Commission FP7)
  • LeMoRe: Learner Modelling for Reflection (informal research network)
  • Publications (see below)
Teaching

  • Personalisation and Adaptive Systems (2nd Year)
  • Adaptive Learning Environments (3rd Year)
  • Real World Entrepreneurship: Case Studies (MSc)
  • Resources for Students: Canvas, OLMlets, Next-TELL OLM
  • Teaching Project: UK-SpecIAL (Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre)
Current Administrative Roles
  • College Quality Assurance Committee
  • College Programme Approval and Review Committee
  • School Ethics Committee
Research Students, Research Fellows and Visiting Researchers

Qualifications, Associations, Citations, Etc.


Publications Journal Papers:

  1. Kickmeier-Rust, M.D., Bull, S. & Meissl-Egghart, G. (2014). Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling, International Journal of Serious Games 1(2), 67-74.
  2. Bull, S. Jackson, T. & Lancaster, M. (2010). Students' Interest in their Misconceptions in First Year Electrical Circuits and Mathematics Courses, International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 47(3), 307-318.
  3. Bull, S. & Gardner, P. (2010). Raising Learner Awareness of Progress Towards UK-SPEC Learning Outcomes, Engineering Education: Journal of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre 5(1), 11-22.
  4. Xu, J. & Bull, S. (2010). Encouraging Advanced Second Language Speakers to Recognise their Language Difficulties: A Personalised Computer-Based Approach, Computer Assisted Language Learning 23(2), 111-127.
  5. Kukulska-Hulme, A. & Bull, S. (2009). Theory-Based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies 3(2), 12-18. Adapted from Kukulska-Hulme & Bull, 2008.
  6. Gakhal, I. & Bull, S. (2008). An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots, ALT-J: Research in Learning Technology 16(2), 123-135.
  7. Lee, S.J.H. & Bull, S. (2008). An Open Learner Model to Help Parents Help their Children, Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning 6(1), 29-51.
  8. Yildirim, O., Acar, A.C., Bull, S. & Sevinc, L. (2008). Relationships Between Teachers’ Leadership Style, Students’ Learning Style and Academic Achievement: A Field Study on High School Students, Educational Psychology, 28(1), 73-81.
  9. Kerly, A., Ellis, R. & Bull, S. (2008). CALMsystem: A Conversational Agent for Learner Modelling, Knowledge-Based Systems 21(3), 238-246. Reprinted from Kerly et al., 2007.
  10. Bull, S., Mabbott, A. & Abu-Issa, A. (2007). UMPTEEN: Named and Anonymous Learner Model Access for Instructors and Peers, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 17(3), 227-253.
  11. Dimitrova, V., McCalla, G. & Bull, S. (2007). Open Learner Models: Future Research Directions (Special Issue of IJAIED Part 2), International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 17(3), 217-226.
  12. Bull, S., Dimitrova, V. & McCalla, G. (2007). Open Learner Models: Research Questions (Special Issue of IJAIED Part 1), International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 17(2), 83-87.
  13. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2007). Student Models that Invite the Learner In: The SMILI Open Learner Modelling Framework, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 17(2), 89-120.
  14. Kerly, A., Hall, P. & Bull, S. (2007). Bringing Chatbots into Education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models, Knowledge-Based Systems 20, 177-185. Reprinted from Kerly et al., 2006.
  15. Bull, S., Quigley, S. & Mabbott, A. (2006). Computer-Based Formative Assessment to Promote Reflection and Learner Autonomy, Engineering Education: Journal of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre 1(1), 8-18.
  16. Lloyd, T. & Bull, S. (2006). A Haptic Learner Model, International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning 16(1/2), 137-149.
  17. Papanikolaou, K.A., Mabbott, A., Bull, S. & Grigoriadou, M. (2006). Designing Learner-Controlled Educational Interactions Based on Learning / Cognitive Style and Learner Behaviour, Interacting with Computers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 18(3), 356-384.
  18. Cui, Y. & Bull, S. (2005). Context and Learner Modelling for the Mobile Foreign Language Learner, System 33(2), 353-367.
  19. Corlett, D., Sharples, M., Bull, S. & Chan, T. (2005). Evaluation of a Mobile Learning Organiser for University Students, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 21(3), 162-170.
  20. Bull, S., Greer, J. & McCalla, G. (2003). The Caring Personal Agent, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 13(1), 21-34.
  21. Bull, S. & McCalla, G. (2002). Modelling Cognitive Style in a Peer Help Network, Instructional Science 30(6), 497-528.
  22. Bull, S. & Ma, Y. (2001). Raising Learner Awareness of Language Learning Strategies in Situations of Limited Resources, Interactive Learning Environments 9(2), 171-200.
  23. Greer, J. & Bull, S. (2000). Computer Support for Collaboration in Medical Education, Clinical and Investigative Medicine 23(4), 270-274.
  24. Bull, S. (1997). Promoting Effective Learning Strategy Use in CALL, Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal 10(1), 3-39.
  25. Bull, S., Brna, P. & Pain, H. (1995). Extending the Scope of the Student Model, User Modelling and User Adapted Interaction 5(1), 45-65.
  26. Bull, S., Pain, H. & Brna, P. (1995). Mr. Collins: A Collaboratively Constructed, Inspectable Student Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning, Instructional Science 23(1-3), 65-87.
  27. Bull, S. (1994). Learning Languages: Implications for Student Modelling in ICALL, ReCALL 6(1), 34-39.
  28. Bull, S. (1994). Student Modelling for Second Language Acquisition, Computers and Education 23(1/2), 13-20.
  29. Bull, S. (1993). Towards User/System Collaboration in the Development of a Student Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning, ReCALL 8, 3-8.

Book Chapters:

  1. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2013). Open Learner Models as Drivers for Metacognitive Processes, in R. Azevedo & V. Aleven (eds), International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies, Springer, New York, 349-365.
  2. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2010). Open Learner Models, in R. Nkambou, J. Bordeau & R. Miziguchi (eds), Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer, 318-338.
  3. Sharples, M., Corlett, D., Bull, S., Chan, T. & Rudman, P. (2005). The Student Learning Organiser, in A. Kukulska-Hulme & J. Traxler (eds), Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers, RoutledgeFalmer, London, 139-149.
  4. Bull, S., Dimitrova, V. & Brna, P. (2002). Enhancing Reflective Modelling through Communicative Interaction in Learning Environments, in P. Brna, M. Baker, K. Stenning & A. Tiberghien (eds), The Role of Communication in Learning to Model, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah NJ, 183-211.

Conference and Workshop Papers (including conference papers published as book chapters):

  1. Jones, A., Castellano, G. & Bull, S. (to appear). Investigating the Effect of a Robotic Tutor on Learner Perception of Skill-Based Feedback, International Conference on Social Robotics 2014.
  2. Demmans Epp, C., Bull, S., & Johnson, M.D. (2014). Visualising Uncertainty for Open Learner Model Users, to appear in volume of CEUR Proceedings associated with UMAP 2014.
  3. Bull, S., Johnson, M.D., Demmans Epp, C., Masci, D., Alotaibi, M. & Girard, S. (2014). Formative Assessment and Meaningful Learning Analytics, to appear in Proceedings of ICALT 2014.
  4. Alotaibi, M. & Bull, S. (2014). Collaborative Discussion Around Individual Open Learner Models, to appear in Proceedings of ICALT 2014.
  5. Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J. & Bull, S. (2014). Scaffolding Reflection for Collaborative Brainstorming, in S. Trausan-Matu, K.E. Boyer, M. Crosby & K. Panourgia (eds). Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 615-616.
  6. Johnson, M.D., Cierniak, G., Hansen, C., Bull, S., Wasson, B., Biel, C., Debus, K. (2013). Teacher Approaches to Adopting a Competency Based Open Learner Model, in L-H. Wong et al. (eds), Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computers in Education. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.
  7. Johnson, M.D., Bull, S., Wasson, B., Hansen, C., Cierniak, G., Debus, K., Biel, C. (2013). Initial Use of a Flexible Open Learner Model, in L-H. Wong et al. (eds), Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computers in Education. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.
  8. Bull, S., Kickmeier-Rust, M., Vatrapu, R., Johnson, M.D., Hammermueller, K., Byrne, W., Hernandez-Munoz, L., Giorgini, F., Meissl-Egghart, G. (2013). Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open Learner Model: Confusing?, proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Paphos, Cyprus, September 2013.
  9. Johnson, M.D., Bull, S., Kickmeier-Rust, M. (2013). Student Competency Visualisation for Teachers, 3rd International Workshop on Teaching Analytics, EC-TEL 2013.
  10. Jones, A., Bull, S. & Castellano, G. (2013). Teacher Perspectives on the Potential for Scaffolding with an Open Learner Model and a Robotic Tutor, in G. Biswas, R. Azevedo, V. Shute & S. Bull (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Scaffolding in Open-Ended Learning Environments (OELEs), AIED 2013.
  11. Bull, S., Johnson, M.D., Alotaibi, M., Byrne, W. & Cierniak, G. (2013). Visualising Multiple Data Sources in an Independent Open Learner Model, in H.C. Lane & K. Yacef (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
  12. Castellano, G., Paiva, A., Kappas, A., Aylett, R., Hastie, H., Barendregt, W., Nabais, F. & Bull, S. (2013). Towards Virtual and Robotic Empathic Tutors, in H.C. Lane & K. Yacef (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
  13. Vatrapu, R., Reimann, P., Bull, S. & Johnson, M. (2013). An Eye-Tracking Study of Notational, Informational, and Emotional Aspects of Learning Analytics Representations, Proceedings of Learning Analytics and Knowledge.
  14. Bull, S., Wasson, B., Kickmeier-Rust, M., Johnson, M.D., Moe, E., Hansen, C., Meissl-Egghart, G. & Hammermuller, K. (2012). Assessing English as a Second Language: From Classroom Data to a Competence-Based Open Learner Model, International Conference on Computers in Education.
  15. Bull, S. & Vatrapu, R. (2012). Negotiated Learner Models for Today, International Conference on Computers in Education.
  16. Alotaibi, M. & Bull, S. (2012). Combining Facebook and Open Learner Models to Encourage Collaborative Learning, International Conference on Computers in Education.
  17. Reimann, P., Bull, S. & Ganesan, P. (2012). Supporting the Development of 21st Century Skills: Student Facilitation of Meetings and Data for Teachers, in R. Vatrapu, W. Halb & S. Bull, Proceedings of the Workshop Towards Theory and Practice of Teaching Analytics, EC-TEL 2012, CEUR Workshop Proceedings http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-894.
  18. Bull, S. (2012). Preferred Features of Open Learner Models for University Students, in S.A. Cerri, W.J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis & K. Panourgia (eds). Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 411-421.
  19. Martin, M., Alverez, A., Reina, D. Fernandez-Castro, I., Urretavizcaya, M. & Bull, S. (2012). Open Student Models to Enhance Blended Learning, in S.A. Cerri, W.J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis & K. Panourgia (eds). Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 685-686.
  20. Bull, S., Wasson, B., Johnson, M.D., Petters, D. & Hansen, C. (2012). Helping Teachers Effectively Support Group Learning, in J. Kim & R. Kumar (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Intelligent Support for Learning in Groups, ITS 2012.
  21. Alotaibi, M. & Bull, S. (2012). Using Facebook to Support Student Collaboration and Discussion of their Open Learner Models, Proceedings of Workshop on Web 2.0 Tools, Methodology, and Services for Enhancing Intelligent Tutoring Systems, ITS 2012.
  22. Bull, S. & Vatrapu, R. (2011). Supporting Collaborative Interaction with Open Learner Models: Existing Approaches and Open Questions, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2011.
  23. Johnson, M.D., Reimann, P., Bull, S. & Fujita, N. (2011). Epistemic Beliefs and Open Learner Models, Proceedings of Workshop on Personalization Approaches in Learning Environments, User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization 2011.
  24. Reimann, P. & Bull, S. (2011). Facilitating Communication with Open Learner Models: A Semiotic Engineering Perspective, in G. Biswas, S. Bull, J. Kay & A. Mitrovic (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education , Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 531-533.
  25. Johnson, M. & Bull, S. (2011). Optional Finer Granularity in an Open Learner Model, in G. Biswas, S. Bull, J. Kay & A. Mitrovic (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education , Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 478-480.
  26. Reimann, P., Bull, S., Halb, W. & Johnson, M. (2011). Design of a Computer-Assisted Assessment System for Classroom Formative Assessment, CAF11, IEEE.
  27. Vatrapu, R., Teplovs, C., Fujita, N. & Bull, S. (2011). Towards Visual Analytics for Teachers' Dynamic Diagnostic Pedagogical Decision-Making, Learning Analytics and Knowledge 2011.
  28. Bull, S., Gakhal, I., Grundy, D., Johnson, M., Mabbott, A. & Xu, J. (2010). Preferences in Multiple View Open Learner Models, in M. Wolpers, P.A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstaedt & V. Dimitrova (eds), Susataining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, EC-TEL 2010, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 476-481.
  29. Ahmad, N., Britland, M., Bull, S. & Mabbott, A. (2010). A Role for Open Learner Models in Formative Assessment: Support from Studies with Editable Learner Models, Proceedings of Workshop on Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment, EC-TEL 2010.
  30. Bull, S. (2010). Features of an Independent Open Learner Model Influencing Uptake by University Students, in De Bra, P., Kobsa, A. & Chin, D. (eds), User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization 2010, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 393-398.
  31. Bull, S., Mabbott, A., Johan, R., Johnson, M., Lee-Shim, K. & Lloyd, T. (2010). Interfaces for Inspectable Learner Models, in Aleven, V., Kay, J. & Mostow, J. (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2010, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 275-277.
  32. Johan, R. & Bull, S. (2010). Promoting Collaboration and Discussion of Misconceptions Using Open Learner Models, in A. Bader-Natal, E. Walker & C.P. Rose (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Opportunities for Intelligent and Adaptive Behavior in Collaborative Learning Systems, Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2010, 9-12.
  33. Bull, S. & Gardner, P. (2009). Highlighting Learning Across a Degree with an Independent Open Learner Model, in V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Boulay & A. Graesser (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 275-282.
  34. Johan, R. & Bull, S. (2009). Consultation of Misconceptions Representations by Students in Education-Related Courses, in V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Boulay & A. Graesser (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 565-572.
  35. Ahmad, N. & Bull, S. (2009). Learner Trust in Learner Model Externalisations, in V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Boulay & A. Graesser (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 617-619.
  36. Johnson, M. & Bull, S. (2009). Belief Exploration in a Multiple-Media Open Learner Model for Basic Harmony, in V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Boulay & A. Graesser (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 299-306.
  37. Shahrour, G. & Bull, S. (2009). Interaction Preferences and Learning in an Inspectable Learner Model for Language, in V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Boulay & A. Graesser (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 659-661.
  38. Velez, J., Fabregat, R., Bull, S. & Baldiris, S. (2009). The Potential of Open Learner Models in Adaptive Virtual Learning Environments, Proceedings of TUMAS-A Workshop (Towards User Modeling and Adaptive Systems for All), AIED 2009.
  39. Bull, S., Gardner, P., Ahmad, N., Ting, J. & Clarke, B. (2009). Use and Trust of Simple Independent Open Learner Models to Support Learning Within and Across Courses, in G-J. Houben, G, McCalla, F. Pianesi & M. Zancanari (eds), User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg,42-53.
  40. Kerly, A., Ellis, R., & Bull, S., (2008). Conversational Agents in E-Learning, in T. Allen, R. Ellis & M. Petridis (eds), Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XVI - Proceedings of AI-2008, the Twenty-eighth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Springer, London.
  41. Kukulska-Hulme, A. & Bull, S. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Mobile Language Learning Diaries and Noticing for Learners, Teachers and Researchers, MLearn 2008.
  42. Johan, R., Bull, S. & Hamid, J. (2008). Trainee Teachers’ Interest in their Subject Misconceptions, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference UPSI-UPI: Achieving Excellence and Quality in Teacher Education, Tanjong Malim, Malaysia.
  43. Ahmad, N., Iahad, N. & Bull, S. (2008). The Potential to Facilitate Self-Directed Learning in Malaysian Public Higher Education Institutes using an Open Learner Model, Proceedings of International Conference on University Learning and Teaching: INCULT, Malaysia.
  44. Bull, S., Mabbott, A., Gardner, P., Jackson, T., Lancaster, M., Quigley, S. & Childs, P.A. (2008). Supporting Interaction Preferences and Recognition of Misconceptions with Independent Open Learner Models, in W. Neijdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 62-72.
  45. Ahmad, N. & Bull, S. (2008). Do Students Trust their Open Learner Models?, in W. Neijdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 255-258.
  46. Shahrour, G. & Bull, S. (2008). Does 'Notice' Prompt Noticing? Raising Awareness in Language Learning with an Open Learner Model, in W. Neijdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 173-182.
  47. Bull, S., Ahmad, N., Johnson, M., Johan, R., Mabbott, A. & Kerly, A. (2008). Adaptive Navigation Support, Learner Control and Open Learner Models, in W. Neijdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 275-278.
  48. Kerly, A. & Bull, S. (2008). Children's Interactions with Inspectable and Negotiated Learner Models, in B.P. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou & S. Lajoie (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 9th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 132-141.
  49. Kerly, A. Ahmad, N. & Bull, S. (2008). Investigating Learner Trust in Open Learner Models using a 'Wizard of Oz' Approach, in B.P. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou & S. Lajoie (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 9th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 722-724.
  50. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2008). Metacognition and Open Learner Models, in I. Roll & V. Aleven (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning in Educational Technologies, International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 7-20.
  51. Bull, S., Dong, X, Britland, M. & Guo, Y. (2008). Can Students Edit their Learner Model Appropriately?, in B.P. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou & S. Lajoie (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 9th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 674-676.
  52. Kerly, A., Ellis, R. & Bull, S. (2007). CALMsystem: A Conversational Agent for Learner Modelling, in R. Ellis, T. Allen & M. Petridis (eds), Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XV - Proceedings of AI-2007, 27th SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Springer Verlag, 81-102. Selected as one of Best Application Papers.
  53. Bull, S., Cooke, N. & Mabbott, A. (2007). Visual Attention in Open Learner Model Presentations: An Eye-Tracking Investigation, in C. Conati, K. McCoy & G. Paliouras (eds), User Modeling 2007: 11th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 187-196.
  54. Bull, S. & Britland, M. (2007). Group Interaction Prompted by a Simple Assessed Open Learner Model that can be Optionally Released to Peers, in P. Brusilovsky, K. Papanikolaou & M. Grigoriadou (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Personalisation in E-Learning Environments at Individual and Group Level (PING), User Modeling 2007.
  55. Kerly, A. & Bull, S. (2007). Open Learner Models: Opinions of School Education Professionals, in K. Koedinger, R. Luckin & J. Greer (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam.
  56. Mabbott, A. & Bull, S. (2007). Comparing Student-Constructed Open Learner Model Presentations to the Domain, in K. Koedinger, R. Luckin & J. Greer (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam.
  57. Kerly, A., Hall, P. & Bull, S. (2006). Bringing Chatbots into Education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models, in R. Ellis, T. Allen & A. Tuson (eds), Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XIV - Proceedings of AI-2006, 26th SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Springer. Selected as one of Best Application Papers.
  58. Bull, S. & Mabbott, A. (2006). 20000 Inspections of a Domain-Independent Open Learner Model with Individual and Comparison Views, in M. Ikeda, K. Ashley & T-W. Chan (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 8th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 422-432.
  59. Kerly, A. & Bull, S. (2006). The Potential for Chatbots in Negotiated Learner Modelling, in M. Ikeda, K. Ashley & T-W. Chan (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 8th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 443-452.
  60. Mabbott, A. & Bull, S. (2006). Student Preferences for Editing, Persuading and Negotiating the Open Learner Model, in M. Ikeda, K. Ashley & T-W. Chan (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 8th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 481-490.
  61. Bull, S., Cui, Y., Röbig, H. & Sharples, M. (2005). Adapting to Different Needs in Different Locations: Handheld Computers in University Education, Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education 2005.
  62. Bull, S., Abu Issa, A.S., Ghag, H. & Lloyd, T. (2005). Some Unusual Open Learner Models, Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 104-111.
  63. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2005). A Framework for Designing and Analysing Open Learner Modelling, Proceedings of Workshop on Learner Modelling for Reflection, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2005, 81-90.
  64. Bull, S., Mangat, M., Mabbott, A., Abu Issa, A.S. & Marsh, J. (2005). Reactions to Inspectable Learner Models: Seven Year Olds to University Students, Proceedings of Workshop on Learner Modelling for Reflection, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2005, 1-10.
  65. Bull, S. (2004). Supporting Learning with Open Learner Models, Proceedings of 4th Hellenic Conference with International Participation: Information and Communication Technologies in Education, Athens, Greece. Keynote.
  66. Bull, S. & McKay, M. (2004). An Open Learner Model for Children and Teachers: Inspecting Knowledge Level of Individuals and Peers, in J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari & F. Paraguacu (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 7th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 646-655.
  67. Mabbott, A. & Bull, S. (2004). Alternative Views on Knowledge: Presentation of Open Learner Models, in J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari & F. Paraguacu (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 7th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 689-698.
  68. Sharifi, G., Deters, R., Vassileva, J., Bull, S. & Röbig, H. (2004). Location-Aware Adaptive Interfaces for Information Access with Handheld Computers, in W. Nejdl & P. de Bra (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems: Third International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
  69. Corlett, D., Sharples, M., Chan, T. & Bull, S. (2004). A Mobile Learning Organiser for University Students, in J. Roschelle, T-W. Chan, Kinshuk & S.J.H. Yang (eds), Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, 35-42.
  70. Kiddie, P., Marianczak, T., Sandle, N., Bridgefoot, L., Mistry, C., Williams, D., Corlett, D., Sharples, M. & Bull, S. (2004). Interactive Logbook: The Development of an Application to Enhance and Facilitate Collaborative Working within Groups in Higher Education, Proceedings of MLearn 2004.
  71. Bull, S., Cui, Y., McEvoy, A.T., Reid, E. & Yang, W. (2004). Roles for Mobile Learner Models, in J. Roschelle, T-W. Chan, Kinshuk & S.J.H. Yang (eds), Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, 124-128.
  72. Bull, S. & Reid, E. (2004). Individualised Revision Material for Use on a Handheld Computer, in J. Attewell & C. Savill-Smith (eds), Learning with Mobile Devices, Learning and Skills Development Agency, London, 35-42. Extended version of Bull & Reid, 2003.
  73. Sharples, M., Chan, T., Rudman, P. & Bull, S. (2004). Evaluation of a Mobile Learning Organiser and Concept Mapping Tools, in J. Attewell & C. Savill-Smith (eds), Learning with Mobile Devices, Learning and Skills Development Agency, London. Extended version of Sharples et al., 2003.
  74. Bull, S., Brna, P. & Dimitrova, V. (eds). (2003). Proceedings of Workshop on Learner Modelling for Reflection, Supplemental Proceedings Volume 5, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2003.
  75. Bull, S., McEvoy, A.T. & Reid, E. (2003). Learner Models to Promote Reflection in Combined Desktop PC/Mobile Intelligent Learning Environments, in S. Bull, P. Brna & V. Dimitrova (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Learner Modelling for Reflection, Supplemental Proceedings Volume 5, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2003, University of Sydney, 199-208.
  76. Bull, S. & McEvoy, A.T. (2003). An Intelligent Learning Environment with an Open Learner Model for the Desktop PC and Pocket PC, in U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo & J. kay (eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 389-391.
  77. Bull, S. (2003). User Modelling and Mobile Learning, in P. Brusilovsky, A. Corbett & F. de Rosis (eds), User Modeling 2003: 9th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidleberg, 383-387.
  78. Bull, S. & Nghiem, T. (2002). Helping Learners to Understand Themselves with a Learner Model Open to Students, Peers and Instructors, in P. Brna & V. Dimitrova (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Individual and Group Modelling Methods that Help Learners Understand Themselves, International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2002, 5-13.
  79. Bull, S., Greer, J., McCalla, G., Kettel, L. & Bowes, J. (2001). User Modelling in I-Help: What, Why, When and How, in M. Bauer, P.J. Gmytrasiewicz & J. Vassileva (eds), User Modeling 2001: 8th International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 117-126.
  80. Greer, J., McCalla, G., Vassileva, J., Deters, R., Bull, S. & Kettel, L. (2001). Lessons Learned in Deploying a Multi-Agent Learning Support System: The I-Help Experience, in J.D. Moore, C.L. Redfield & W. L. Johnson (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 410-421.
  81. Bull, S., Greer, J., McCalla, G. & Kettel, L. (2001). Help-Seeking in an Asynchronous Help Forum, in R. Luckin (ed), Proceedings of Workshop on Help Provision and Help Seeking in Interactive Learning Environments, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2001.
  82. Vassileva, J., Deters, R., McCalla, G. Greer, J., Bull, S. & Kettel, L. (2001). Deploying I-Help: Some Software Engineering and Social Lessons, in J. Vassileva (ed), Proceedings of Workshop on Multi-Agent Based Learning Environments, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2001.
  83. Bull, S. & Greer, J. (2000). Peer Help for Problem-Based Learning, in S. Young, J. Greer, H. Maurer & Y.S. Chee (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Computers in Education (vol. 2), 1007-1015.
  84. Bull, S. (2000). Focusing on Feedback, in E. Broady (ed), Second Language Writing in a Computer Environment, AFLS/CILT, 157-175.
  85. Bull, S. (2000). Individualised Recommendations for Learning Strategy Use, in G. Gauthier, C. Frasson & K. VanLehn (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 594-603.
  86. McCalla, G., Vassileva, J., Greer, J. & Bull, S. (2000). Active Learner Modelling, in G. Gauthier, C. Frasson & K. VanLehn (eds), Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 53-62.
  87. Bull, S., Brna, P., Critchley, S., Davie, K. & Holzherr, C. (1999). The Missing Peer, Artificial Peers and the Enhancement of Human-Human Collaborative Student Modelling, in S.P. Lajoie & M. Vivet (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 269-276.
  88. Morales, R., Pain, H., Bull, S. & Kay, J. (eds). (1999). Proceedings of Workshop on Open, Interactive and Other Overt Approaches to Learner Modelling, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 1999.
  89. Brna, P., Self, J., Bull, S. & Pain, H. (1999). Negotiated Collaborative Assessment through Collaborative Student Modelling, in R. Morales, H. Pain, S. Bull & J. Kay (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Open, Interactive and Other Overt Approaches to Learner Modelling, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 1999, 35-42.
  90. Bull, S. & Shurville, S. (1999). Cooperative Writer Modelling: Facilitating Reader-Based Writing with Scrawl, in R. Morales, H. Pain, S. Bull & J. Kay (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Open, Interactive and Other Overt Approaches to Learner Modelling, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 1999, 1-8.
  91. Bull, S. & Shurville, S. (1999). Reader, Writer and Student Models to Support the Writing Process, in J. Kay (ed), UM99: User Modeling, Springer Wien New York, 295-297.
  92. Bull, S. & Brna, P. (1999). Enhancing Peer Interaction in the Solar System, in P. Brna, M. Baker, K. Stenning (eds), Proceedings of C-LEMMAS Conference: Roles of Communicative Interaction in Learning to Model in Mathematics and Science, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds.
  93. Bull, S. (1998). 'Do It Yourself' Student Models for Collaborative Student Modelling and Peer Interaction, in B.P. Goettl, H.M. Halff, C.L. Redfield & V.J. Shute (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 176-185.
  94. Broady, E. & Bull, S. (1998). One Computer, Two Students, Two Student Models and a Lot of Discussion, in K. Cameron (ed), Multimedia CALL: Theory and Practice, Elm Bank Publications, Exeter, 135-144.
  95. Bull, S. (1998). Interactive Feedback with 'See Yourself Write', in M-F. Crete & E. Esperet (eds), Proceedings of 1998 Writing Conference (EARLI Special Interest Group 'Writing'): Writing and Learning to Write at the Dawn of the 21st Century, LaCo-CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 277-284.
  96. Bull, S. & Broady, E. (1997). Spontaneous Peer Tutoring from Sharing Student Models, in B. du Boulay & R. Mizoguchi (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 143 - 150.
  97. Bull, S. & Brna, P. (1997). What Does Susan Know That Paul Doesn't? (And Vice Versa): Contributing to Each Other's Student Model, in B. du Boulay & R. Mizoguchi (eds), Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 568 - 570.
  98. Bull, S. (1997). See Yourself Write: A Simple Student Model To Make Students Think, in A. Jameson, C. Paris & C. Tasso (eds), User Modeling: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Springer, Wien New York, 315-326.
  99. Bull, S. & Smith, M. (1997). A Pair of Student Models to Encourage Collaboration, in A. Jameson, C. Paris & C. Tasso (eds), User Modeling: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Springer, Wien New York, 339-341.
  100. Bull, S. (1997). A Multiple Student and User Modelling System for Peer Interaction, in R. Schaefer & M. Bauer (eds), Proceedings of ABIS'97: Workshop Adaptivitaet und Benutzermodellierung in interaktiven Softwaresystemen, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken, 61-71.
  101. Smith, M. & Bull, S. (1997). Computer Mediation of Peer Interaction: Choosing Recommendations, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers and Education, Sarawak.
  102. Pain, H., Bull, S. & Brna, P. (1996). A Student Model 'For Its Own Sake', in P. Brna, A. Paiva & J. Self (eds), Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Lisbon, 191-198.
  103. Bull, S. & Pain, H. (1995). 'Did I Say What I Think I Said, And Do You Agree With Me?': Inspecting and Questioning the Student Model, in J. Greer (ed), Proceedings of World Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education, AACE, Charlottesville VA, 501-508.
  104. Bull, S. (1995). Handling Native and Non-Native Language Transfer in CALL: Theory and Practice, in R. Wakely, A. Barker, D. Frier, P. Graves & Y. Suleiman (eds), Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Issues and Perspectives, in association with CILT, London, 97-108.
  105. Bull, S. & Smith, M. (1995). Using Targeted Negotiation to Support Students' Learning, Proceedings of International Conference on Computers and Education, AACE, Charlottesville VA, 173-181.
  106. Bull, S., Pain, H. & Brna, P. (1994). Student Modelling Beyond Domain Knowledge, Proceedings of International Conference on User Modeling 94 (UM94), Hyannis MA, 197-204.
  107. Bull, S. & Musson T. (1994). Goal-Oriented Software: When The Development Process is Different..., in Ross, M., Brebbia, C.A., Staples, G. & Stapleton, J. (eds), Software Quality Management II vol. 2: Building Quality into Software, Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, 175-186.
  108. Bull, S., Pain, H. & Brna, P. (1993). Student Modelling in an Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System: The Issues of Language Transfer and Learning Strategies, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, Taipei, 121-126.
  109. Bull, S., Pain, H. & Brna, P. (1993). Collaboration and Reflection in the Construction of a Student Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning, Proceedings of the Seventh International PEG Conference, Edinburgh, 48-56.

Conference Abstracts, etc.:

  1. Bull, S., Kickmeier-Rust, M., meissl-Egghart, G., Johnson, M.D., Wasson, B., Alotaibi, M. & Hansen, C. (2013). Interactive Event: From a Virtual Village to an Open Learner Model with Next-TELL, AIED 2013.
  2. Ahmad, N., Iahad, N. & Bull, S. (2008). Facilitating Self-Directed Learning with an Open Learner Model, 4th International Conference on University Learning and Teaching, UiTM, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
  3. Johan, R., Bull, S. & Hamid, J. (2008). Trainee Teachers’ Interest in their Subject Misconceptions, 3rd International Conference UPSI-UPI: Achieving Excellence and Quality in Teacher Education, Tanjong Malim, Malaysia.
  4. Bull, S., Gardner, P. Jackson, T., Lancaster, M. & Quigley, S. (2007). Revealing Students' Misconceptions, Birmingham Education, Theory and Action 1(1), 11-15. http://www.landtdevelopment.bham.ac.uk/journal. Good practice case study.
  5. Bull, S. & Xu, J. (2007). Prompting Noticing in Second Language Learning: An Open Learner Model Approach, EUROCALL 2007, 79.
  6. Bull, S. & Quigley, S. (2006). Promoting Reflection and Learner Autonomy by Showing Students Simple Representations of their Knowledge, University of Birmingham Learning and Teaching Conference.

  7. Bull, S. & Reid, E. (2003). Individualised Revision Material for Use on a Handheld Computer, in J. Attewell, G. Da Bormida, M. Sharples & C. Savill-Smith (eds), MLEARN 2003 Book of Abstracts, Learning and Skills Development Agency, London, 8-9.
  8. Sharples, M., Chan, T., Rudman, P. & Bull, S. (2003). Evaluation of a Mobile Learning Organiser and Concept Mapping Tools, in J. Attewell, G. Da Bormida, M. Sharples & C. Savill-Smith (eds), MLEARN 2003 Book of Abstracts, Learning and Skills Development Agency, London, 60-61.
  9. Bull, S. (1998). Interacting with Feedback, 1998 European Writing Conference, 149-150.
  10. Bull, S. (1997). See Yourself Write: A Tool for Student Writers and their Tutors, Writing the Future: Proceedings of Writing and Computers 10, University of Brighton, 42-44.
  11. Bull, S. & Smith, M. (1997). Assessment through Setting, Taking and Evaluating Tests, 2nd Northumbria Assessment Conference.
  12. Brna, P., Bull, S. & Pain, H. (1996). Collaborative Assessment: Can Students and Teachers Negotiate Effectively?, 1st Northumbria Assessment Conference.
  13. Bull, S. (1994). Diagnosis From Four Directions, EUROCALL 1994, 8-9.
  14. Bull, S. & Musson, T. (1994). Incorporating Learning Issues into Computer Assisted Education, AETT 1994 (Association for Educational and Training Technology), Napier University, Edinburgh.
  15. Bull, S. (1993). Student Modelling and Native and Non-Native Language Transfer, EUROCALL 1993, 37-38.
  16. Bull, S., Pain, H. & Brna, P. (1993). Collaborative Student Modelling: Cooperation between the Student and System, Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Education, AACE, Charlottesville, VA., 547. One page poster description.

Journal Special Issues, Editorial:

  1. Editorial Board / Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
  2. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (2013), Special Issue: Best of AIED 2011 (Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull.)
  3. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (2010), Special Issue: Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies for Language Learning. (Hiroaki Ogata, Gerardo Ayala, Susan Bull.)
  4. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 17(2) and 17(3) (2007), Special Issues: Open Learner Models. (Susan Bull, Vania Dimitrova, Gord McCalla.)

Conference/Workshop Organisational Roles:

  1. Program Chair, ICCE 2013 C1: AIED/ITS (with Thepchai Supnithi, Yusuke Hayashi, Diego Zapata-Rivera)
  2. International Workshop on Teaching Analytics, EC-TEL 2013 (with Ravi Vatrapu, Peter Reimann)
  3. Workshop on Scaffolding in Open-Ended Learning Environments, AIED 2013 (with Gautam Biswas, Roger Azevedo, Valerie Shute)
  4. International Workshop on Teaching Analytics, LAK 2013 (with Ravi Vatrapu, Peter Reimann and Wolfgang Halb)
  5. Workshop on Towards Theory and Practice of Teaching Analytics, EC-TEL 2012 (with Wolfgang Halb and Ravi Vatrapu)
  6. Symposium on Supporting Teachers in Capturing and Analyzing Learning Data in the Technology-Rich Classroom, ICLS 2012 (with Peter Reimann, Friedrich Hesse, Gabriele Cerniak, Rose Luckin, Ravi Vatrapu, Matthew Johnson, Wolfgang Halb, Wilfrid Utz, Michal Kossowski)
  7. Program Chair, AIED 2011 (with Gautam Biswas)
  8. Workshop on Personalization Approaches in Learning Environments, UMAP 2011 (with Alexander Nussbaumer, Diana Perez-Marin, Effie Law, Jesus G. Boticario, Milos Kravcik, Olga C. Santos, Noburu Matsuda)
  9. Workshop on Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment, EC-TEL 2010 (with Eric Ras)
  10. Publicity Chair, ITS 2010
  11. Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization in E-B/Learning Using Pedagogic Conversational Agents, UMAP 2010 (with Diana Perez-Marin and Ismael Pascual Nieto)
  12. Workshops and Tutorials Chair, UM 2007 (with Antonio Krueger)
  13. Workshop on Learner Modelling for Reflection, AIED 2003 (with Paul Brna and Vania Dimitrova)
  14. Workshop on Open, Interactive and Other Overt Approaches to Learner Modelling, AIED 1999 (with Rafael Morales, Helen Pain and Judy Kay)

Research Tutorials:

  1. Bull, S. & Kay, J. (2009). Categorisation and Educational Benefits of Open Learner Models, Tutorial: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2009. Tutorial Notes.
  2. Bull, S. (2006). Open Learner Models for ICALL, Pre-Workshop Course: Interfaces for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning, Ohio, U.S.A.
  3. Bull, S. (2006). Open Learner Modelling, Summer School: Personalised E-Learning, Dublin, Ireland.


Research Students, Research Fellows and Visiting Researchers

  • Ahmad, Norasnita (PhD 2014: Open Learner Models and Trust)
  • Alotaibi, Mohammad (PhD: Social Networking and Open Learner Models)
  • Britland, Mark (MRes 2010: Editing the Learner Model)
  • Byrne, Will (Next-TELL)
  • Demmans Epp, Carrie
  • Gakhal, Inderdip (MRes 2008: An Open Learner Model for Motivated Learners (Trainee Pilots))
  • Galvez Cordero, Jaime (OLMlets)
  • Ganesan, Pavithra (Next-TELL)
  • Ginon, Blandine (OLMlets)
  • Girard, Sylvie (Next-TELL)
  • Hernandez Munoz, Luis (Next-TELL)
  • Johan, Rasyidi
  • Johnson, Matthew (PhD: User Interaction Patterns with Open Learner Models, Next-TELL, LEA's Box)
  • Jones, Aidan (PhD: Empathic Robot and Open Learner Model, EMOTE)
  • Kerly, Alice (PhD 2009: Negotiated Learner Modelling with a Conversational Agent)
  • Mabbott, Andrew (PhD 2009: User Choice in Viewing and Interacting with Open Learner Models, OLMlets)
  • Martin, Maite
  • Martin, Sue (OLMlets)
  • Masci, Drew (Next-TELL)
  • Petters, Dean (Next-TELL)
  • Shahrour, Gheida (MRes 2008: Prompting Noticing in Language Learning with an Open Learner Model)
  • Velez Ramos, Jeimy


Qualifications, Associations, Citations, Etc.
  • PG Cert: Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (2004)
  • PhD: Artificial Intelligence in Education (1997)
  • Masters: Communication in Computing (1991)
  • Masters: General and Applied Linguistics (1988)
  • Undergraduate: Linguistics and German (1986)